Oxford District:bartholomews Topographic Shaded Map-1955-Raf Airfields,old Rail

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Seller: Top-Rated Seller chapelstile (4,116) 100%, Location: Redhill, Ships to: Worldwide, Item: 163047086662 VINTAGE MAP- SOLD FOR £10 ONLY- NO AUCTION- NO POSTAGE FEE FOR 2ND CLASS .UK. Seller's Code: 140520181 THIS IS A VINTAGE, 1/2” TO THE MILE BARTHOLOMEW’ S TOPOGRAPHICALLY COLOURED MAP OF OXFORD AND OXFORDSHIRE No 14 1955 From the Great Britain Series ......… A very fine Bartholomew Topographically Shaded map on a linen backing A description of this old map: The Cotswold Hills cross this map from west to north east. They are at their most extensive in Gloucestershire and narrow as they run through Oxfordshire into Northamptonshire. They are oolithic limestones and of the Jurassic period. The Chilterns, which occupy the south east of this map on the Oxford Buckinghamshire border are Upper Cretaceous and chalk. It is interesting how rocks generally age as one progresses north west across the island of Britain, from the youngest at Dungeness to the oldest on Lewis. The Thames crosses the centre of this map from is source on the Foss Way to Wallingford. Both places are of interest hydrographically: Wallingford is where the Thames dips south before cutting through the Chilterns- but it has only done so since the Anglian Ice Age: The ancestral Thames ran north, following the Chilterns Escarpment to East Anglia and the North Sea. At the other end: that source near Tarlton is also recent. The Ancestral Thames rose in Wales and was cut off from is ancient headwaters when the sundering of the glacial Lake Lapworth, resulpted the rivers of the west- particularly the Severn. But this Thames source nestles in the lea of the Cotswolds. The ancestral river must have flowed north or south of here and bypassed the Cotswolds either via the Banbury-Cherwell Gap or south perhaps following a course now partly occupied by the Wiltshire Avon. This Cirencester source must have been the head or a relatively minor tributary of that ancient river. Oxford. This town is central to the county but at a very narrow point where it is pinched to the east by Buckinghamshire and to the west by Wiltshire. The county is 7 miles wide here and Oxford is a mile from the Wiltshire Border. Oxford is sited for the joint crossing of the Cherwell and Thames and is only a couple of miles south east of the most northern arc of the Thames- at Pixey Mead. One would have thought that it would have been a Roman station, but Akeman Street ignores the town to the north and the Roman road south west from Bicester misses the town to the north. An extrapolation suggest that the Thames may have been bridged near Tadpole Bridge near Radcot and Bampton- if it was bridged at all on Ermin Street south east from Cirencester. Near Oxford, the Thames squeezes through a gap between low hills where as the greatest dale of the district, the Vale of the White Horse, is occupied by the relatively insignificant River Ock: the map displays all the hall-marks of recent and post glacial hydrography. These low hills which flank Oxford lie equidistant between the chalk and the Cotswold limestone: perhaps they are formed of one of the barrier strata of the Lower Cretaceous- such as gault or greensand. The crescent of the Cotswolds is drained by the Windrush, Evenlode and Cherwell, and the Cherwell upstream of Oxford may even be a longer and more significant stream than the Upper Thames to the west of the city. From Witney to Standlake, the Windrush follows two different courses. In the north of the map, divergences between the course of the Cherwell and the county border with Northants shows how the border has stayed fixed while the river course has evolved. Siting of Oxford Railways funnel in via four lines from the north and out south via two lines – to Didcot and east to high Wycombe and London. That the town was served by several rival companies is shown by the two stations standing next to each other but not corresponding, in the west of the city. The town proper is between the Cherwell and Thames with Headington and Cowley beyond the Cherwell to the east. Cowley has its Morris Cowley Station for the car factory. It was the owner of this company who endowed Nuffield College in the town. Oxford was the Royalist capital in the Civil War. Here it is seen 10 years after the end of the 2nd War in Europe and 6 years after the instigation of British Railways. Railways The lines are still intact for the Beeching cuts have yet to take effect. Perhaps the most famous line to be lost on this map is that which follows the Evenlode and includes Adlestrop: about which Edward Thomas wrote his famous poem. It is a curiosity that Roman roads and railways: which used very similar criteria and had very similar objectives as they crossed this landscape- almost never coincide: engineers of different epochs solving the same problem in completely different ways. Both had similar origins: military and mercantile with the mass transportation of people being later and unintended consequences of their building. The GWR mainline in the south of this map is the text book example of a railway progressing from start to finish and avoiding just about every possible town en route. Other curiosities of these Pre Beeching railways include the branch terminus at Fairford. The branch to Woodstock, the rural terminus at Highworth and the branch terminus at Watlington: One wonders what the economic logic for these was. The line in the east of the map from Aylesbury to Cheddington, is already closed. Woodstock and the Great Estates Blenheim Palace, Woodstock is very central to the map and has its own branch railway: build by the nation and Queen Anne for John Churchill it was to be the birth place of Winston Churchill. The lakes are fed by the Gyme, a tributary of the Evenlode. It is a large building and, but most honest accounts, a thoroughly rotten one. Even the stone carving by Inigo Jones is dull and jingoistic: for his genius was wood not stone. To paraphrase David: “The building is large but greatness is missing”. During the 2nd war- just before this map date, it had been co-opted as an hospital. I think is very interesting how so many of these great estates: such as Woodstock, Stowe, Cirencester Park, Eynsham Hall on this map, are seen on Roman Roads. It is as if there is a continuum between the great estates of the Roman period and those of the Mediaeval, Tudor and Georgian periods which has not been fully understood. The orthodoxy is that there is a complete historical break between the Romano British world and that which came later: a theory inherited from Nennius, Gildas and Bede which is not born out by geography or archaeology. 1955 and the RAF Airfields Here is 1955 Churchill is still Prime Minister. Here Bartholomew adds the airfields which until this series had remained redacted since the war. On this map one sees: South Cherney, Kemble, Fairford, Brize Norton, Little Rissington, Upper Heyford, Kidlington, Halton , Booker and Abingdon. Ironically this 1955 map is more use to an historian of RAF airfields than one of the period 1939-1945. One wonders why they were placed here- clustering mainly in the west of the map. Perhaps they were placed to be out of range of Luftwaffe bombers or fighters. Booker and Halton are nearer London, nestling in the Chiltern Hills. These would all have been fighter bases. Bomber Command was placed almost exclusively in Cambridgeshire, Suffolk, Norfolk and Lincolnshire. A very interesting marking on this map is seen at Westcott near Wotton Underwood: it says “Atomic Research Station”. MAP STATS: OLDMAPSHOP - IS MY SOURCE ONLINE FOR MAP AND CARTOGRAPHIC HISTORY TITLE: Oxford: Batholomew’s sheet 14 DATES: 1955 from older survey work PUBLISHER: John Bartholomew FRGS EDITION: ½ inch to the mile- Revised 1/2 Inch Map PRINTER: Edinburgh Geographical Institute PRINTING CODE: 1425 PRINTING PROCESS: Helio Zincograph SCALE: 1/2 inches to the mile GRID: 10 minutes of a degree Mercator OVERALL DIMENSIONS: Roughly 29 inches by 21 inches COVER DIMENSIONS: Roughly 7 ½ inches by 4 inches COVER DETAIL: blue card, black letters, black and red lettering. Floating covers, not hinged. MAP PAPER OR LINE BACKED: linen backed FOLD WEAR: some EDGE NICKS: at edge fold junctions PIN HOLES AT FOLD JUNCTIONS: few VERSO: Plain linen FOXING: no REINFORCING: no SURFACE MARKING: minor FOLDED INTO: 24 sections ANNOTATION: faint marks show how a cyclist explored the north east of this map: easy to miss- very faint. INTEREST: considerable: English geology passes from Cretaceous chalk to Jurassic Limestone with the Oxford basin between: The Thames – a post glacial river and the recently resurrected airfields of the RAF- redacted from earlier maps. Oxford and Roman Roads, railways before Beeching GENERAL CONDITION: good THE NORTH WEST CORNER OF THIS MAP IS AT: Pershore THE NORTH EAST CORNER OF THIS MAP IS AT: Chicheley near Newport Pagnell THE SOUTH EAST CORNER OF THIS MAP IS AT: Woodburn near Marlow on the Thames THE SOUTH WEST CORNER OF THIS MAP IS AT: Malmesbury THE CENTRE OF THIS MAP IS AT: Woodstock- Blenheim Palace General Description of a Bartholomew’s 1/2 inch topographically coloured map: These are very attractive maps which give the reader an instant appreciation of the geological structure of a landscape as well as the cycle-able, drive-able roads. In their classic form they were printed to the 1960's. The earliest were Victorian. They are topographically coloured, which Bartholomew used to call “Orographically coloured”. The OS calls this “Contour coloured”. The tints represent altitude zones with a range from white for the highest peaks of Scotland to a pale apple green for land just above sea level. County borders are purple, rivers are blue if large and black if small. Sometimes the single black line for a railway and a river might be confused. Tidal reaches are pale blue and permanent water is a cerulean blue. Roads are uncoloured, ochre or tertiary red, later maps number A and B roads with red numbers and letters according to the MOT demarcation. Woods are a represented tree symbol because, of course, the green has already been used for topography. The Ordnance Survey, when they used similar shading, coloured woodlands green and therefore could only use and ochre-umber range for the topography. The limited symbols included Youth Hostels, National Trust, Golf Courses, Railways, Canals and Airfields. Footpaths are dotted. The grid is 10 minutes of a degree. The borders were also numbered and lettered. Technique. The Bartholomew Map, being coloured on a black base might be assumed to be purely lithographic. But I think that is not true. The earlier ones had a fine black base plate which was probably electrotype and some colour , if examined under a glass is seen to be lined or matrixed. Therefore I think maps maps must have been letterpress or if lithographed: that was taken from an electrotyped and letterpressed original. Cartographic features It is interesting to note the four holes in the corners of most Bartholomew maps. These were registration pegs used in the multiple plate printing and are not owner’s pin holes. If the word “Ordnance” appears on the cover it is an early map, for the OS prohibited this in c.1911. If the map contains an acknowledgement of Ordnance Survey permission, then it is Post 1911. If the map is in collaboration with the Cyclists Touring Club, the dates are circa 1911-1928. Maps might also be dated by the aircraft graphic: there is an early form and a later form- roughly Pre War and Post War. The early form is “bi-plane like” and the later form is “hurricane like” Tidal banks are usually well named, suggesting that the base surveys of the OS used by Bartholomew, are quite a bit older than the map, and incorporated information from Admiralty charts. If the map contains an acknowledgement of the Ordnance Survey, it is Post 1911. Spot heights are common, on promontories, hills and on roads. They are probably correct to the old Liverpool Datum which was surveyed prior to 1915. If the covers float the map is older, if hinged it is more recent. A standard size for a Bartholomew’s map would be about 32 inches by 22 1/2 inches. The versi are always plain and may be paper or linen backed. Peculiarities Bartholomew might anticipate features (which the OS never did). The railway tunnel from Lymington to the Isle of Wight and the Channel Tunnel of the 1900’s are two examples of anticipation which can be found. In both those cases the projects were not realised. War and Post War editions. As stated: Bartholomew marked airfields with a biplane symbol pre-war and a Hurricane-like symbol post-war. War maps had neither because the airfields were redacted. They would reappear in the 1960's maps. The war-period edition is found in the 1940's and into the 1950's. Other symbols hidden included radio towers. Ordnance Reduction: This is a ½ inch to the mile reduction of the Ordnance Survey, printed in colours and revised locally by Bartholomew. The Ordnance Survey is acknowledged on the bottom margin, where a date is usually, but not always cited. As stated: if this acknowledgement is not seen- suspect a date prior to 1911. Bartholomew used to copy OS maps on a 1” scale but stopped doing so in 1911- so that was probably an OS ban. Royal Appointment: Bartholomew's had the Royal Patronage of George V and continued his Royal Arms at bottom centre of their map sheets, with the dedication “By Appointment to the Late King George V” after his death. When collaborating with the Cyclists' Touring Club in the 1920’s. The Royal Arms were not seen and a winged Wheel symbol of the C.T.C is shown. These CTC maps pre-date the Royal Appointment maps. The arms of the “Late King”, allowed Bartholomew to boast Royal Appointment long after their patronage had been transferred to the Ordnance Survey. Publication: These maps were printed and published from the Edinburgh Geographical Institute in Duncan Street, and this is cited at bottom left on the map sheet. A More extensive details of John Bartholomew & Sons are to be found in the “Historical Notes” below. The Map Covers and Edition Earlier separate Scottish and England & Wales series were revised into a “Great Britain Survey” which had 62 maps. No 1 was S.W. Cornwall, and number 62 was Shetland. These were the “Revised Half Inch Contour Maps”. Earlier surveys had different numbering. Also titles may change- some use County names and some District names for similar surveys- for example “Lincolnshire” or “The Fens”; “Cumberland” or “The Lake District”. Classic covers are blue red and black, with much variation in the blue and style changes, particularly in lettering and the Cover Royal Arms: red and black in the War editions; Blue and Orange/Red in the Post War ones, which cause a curious complimentary colour illusion when an orange red juxtaposed with a lighter blue. Sheet numbers were at top corner of the cover: map type (cloth or paper) and price appeared at the bottom. Sometimes a “Complimentary Colour effect” is seen when a blue inclines towards turquoise and the red inclines towards vermilion. . A letter or letter an number code can usually be found on a Bartholomew’s map: look first bottom left or top left. That code disguises with it a printing date. ............. BARTHOLOMEW MAPS- HISTORICAL NOTES Bartholomew, more than Ordnance Survey, concentrate on the traveller- The Railway traveller at first and the Road traveller in the 20th century. Red flags marking distance became a feature of their road maps. The geology of a Bartholomew's map is eye catching and instantly comprehensible- with the lush leaf greens of the low lands and the siennas and greys of the rising heights. County borders are also well defined and the whole effect is a much more colourful piece of lithographic cartography than an equivalent OS piece. It has, perhaps one visual fault, that is: that colour gradation for height can easily be interpreted as vegetation growth or lack of it- and though the two are not unrelated- the parallel is far from exact. The “psychological” effect of their coloured “orography” is of a lush lowlands and increasingly barren uplands- which may not be the case. Very unfussy and uncomplicated border legends also add to its attractiveness.- with the Royal Cypher usually at bottom centre. When Bartholomew's worked with the Cyclists' Touring Club, their badge replaced the Royal Arms. The Royal patronage enjoyed by Batholomew was only of George V: thus, after his death: the dedication read, “of the Late King George V”. This company was not as assiduous about dating as OS but the notes below offer clues to dating- written by the company's archivist and historian. A revision date is given in the margin here, combined with the OS acknowledgement; both are not always present. Where as Ordnance Survey produce documents of record, Bartholomew's maps evoke a landscape. They are, in a sense, a return to an earlier form of cartography in which pictorial art combined with cartography. Another technical flaw in the symbolism, it could be argued, was the dual use of black lines for railways and rivers; the two could not be confused on OS maps. Some information below is learnt from Mr K Winch's very good history of Bartholomew maps – he was the map curator of the company and a cartographic historian. Readers are recommended to view the site on-line by this historian. A BRIEF GUIDE TO DATING BARTHOLOMEW MAPS: Bartholomew map printing business started in the year 1826, Bartholomew's were Edinburgh cartographers and their Edinburgh premises – were at: 4a North Bridge 1859-1870 and then at 31 Chambers Street 1870-1889 which had been called 17, Brown’s Square. At the turn of the century their works moved to Park Road (1889-1911) then to 12 Duncan Street from 1911 until 1995. The Edinburgh Geographical Institute was located at Duncan Street and its image can be seen on advertising panels on the versi of certain vintage Bartholomew maps: a long low semi-Gothic building with turreted towers. In 1989 Bartholomew merged with the publisher Harper Collins Publishers and in 1995 the company finally left Duncan Street to a site occupied by the new merged company at Westerhill Road, Bishopbriggs, Glasgow MAPS: On early editions no date was included on the map. Sometimes a 4 figure print job number written. This is generally found against the margin in the bottom left corner.. From about 1911 until 1945 a date code was used in which the last two numbers represented the year of publication preceded by an “A” or a “B” indicating in which half of the year the print run took place – thus B21 would be the second half of 1921. This number and letter is usually by the margin at top or bottom left. One some maps it is at centre bottom margin. Bartholomew's ½ Inch to 1 Mile Series, of which there were many, were popular maps often revised in various series of editions with changing sheet names and numbering which altered between these editions: England, England and Wales, Scotland, Great Britain. SCOTLAND: 1875-1886 Reduced Ordnance Maps of Scotland Also: Bartholomew’s Reduced Ordnance Survey of Scotland: 30 ‘District’ sheets. Prepared and printed by J. Bartholomew for Adam & Charles Black. 1890-1895 Bartholomew’s Reduced Ordnance Survey of Scotland. Bartholomew’s Reduced Ordnance Survey, Maps of Scotland for Tourist’s & Cyclists: 29 sheets. With open borders. 1896-1926 Bartholomew’s Reduced Ordnance Survey of Scotland, 2 miles to an inch. Called Bartholomew’s New Reduced Survey for Tourists & Cyclists. 29 sheets. Early maps in brown covers, later maps after 1911in blue covers. 1922-1927 Bartholomew’s “Half-Inch to Mile” Map of Scotland. Called Bartholomew’s Revised Half-Inch to Mile for Motorists & Cyclists. 29 sheets. 1921-1932 Bartholomew’s “Half-Inch to Mile” map of Scotland. called: Bartholomew’s Revised “Half-Inch” contoured maps. 1933-1937 Bartholomew’s Revised Half-Inch map. There is an interesting map in an unusual 1 1/2” scale for Pedestrians” (Ramblers) in the Pentland Hills- executed with the aid of the Scottish Rights of Way Society- seen once as A45 (1945) Orographically coloured ENGLAND & WALES ONE INCH I have only found one of these: It had very simple borders, only citing the publisher and printer, no border measurement or scale marking, no degrees, not citation or acknowledgement. Called itself a Touring map and had Art Nouveau letters on a hinged cover and very robust linen back. Good detail of mines, quarries and factories in a clear and un cluttered manner- orographic and citing the names of railway companies which the 1/2” did not generally do. The title of this example was Windermere & Morecambe Bay, and inside it was advertising a new reduced series of ½ inch which put the date at the time of the dispute over OS copyright- 1910-11. The cover used the words “From the Ordnance Survey” and it was (if ever sold) 2/-. It may have been a series which had to be abandoned for copyright reasons. W H SMITHS John Bartholomew printed maps for W H Smith Station Bookstalls which were red cloth covered with a cream label printed black on the front. The process was an engraved base map from an earlier Ordnance map with counties coloured lithographically. The “target audience” changed from Travellers to Travellers and Tourists, To Cyclist and Tourists. These maps carried no date and are best dated by seeing which railways were not yet marked as finished. The evidence of this red hard covered series suggest dates of 1870s-1890. Later , around 1900, the Smith's Railway Bookshop maps looked more like a Bartholomew's map with a blue and black cloth cover with a black and red label. The maps were wholly lithographically printed and the counties only bordered in a colour- not blocked in. By now, suggested roads were coloured- which they had not been. “Tourists and Cyclists” were the target public- motors were not yet mentioned. These blue covered Smiths/ Bartholomew Maps of Circa 1900 are perhaps some of the most aesthetically pleasing of all maps printed by the Edinburgh company. The whole series of Railway Station maps- Red covered and then Blue Covered-seem to have uniform pin holes which do not align with folds and are, therefore, not fold wear: They must have been made by a form of registration in the printing presses. George Baxter used a similar pin hole form of registration. The Smiths Bartholomew maps can be dated by the number of titles cited in the series list: there were initially 42 titles, then 62, 69 and 82, beginning with the red cloth covers and changing later into the blue cloth covers. In the Edwardian Era Bartholomews printed an England and Wales series in 1/4” scale which was their first attempt to appeal to the motor market. The base was white and taken from a Victorian Ordnance map. Counties were purple bordered, the water was an unusual cerulean blue. The maps were large with 12 sheets covering the two countries. Covers were simple, lettered and blue- quite unlike other Bartholomews amps of the time. Covers floated and and advertising panel for their Atlases appeared on the verso. The series was short lived- expensive at 3/- and the last “Victorian” form – extending the format of the Railway station maps for the new Motorists market. They are attractive maps but rarely seen. 1897-1903 Bartholomew’s Reduced Ordnance Survey of England & Wales, scale 2 miles to 1 inch. called: Bartholomew’s Reduced Ordnance Survey for Tourists & Cyclists. These maps included in Survey Atlas of England & Wales of 1903. 1904-1920 Bartholomew’s “Half-Inch to Mile” map of England & Wales. Called Bartholomew’s new Reduced Survey for Tourists & Cyclists. 37 sheets. On this map first class and second class roads were differentiated for the first time. 1924-1926 Bartholomew’s “Half-Inch to Mile” map of England & Wales. Called Bartholomew’s Revised Half-Inch to Mile for Motorists & Cyclists. 37 sheets. 1926-1936 Bartholomew’s “Half-Inch to Mile” map of England & Wales. Called Bartholomew’s Revised half-Inch Contoured Maps. GREAT BRITAIN 1936-1943 Bartholomew’s Revised Half-Inch Map. Called: Bartholomew’s Revised “Half-Inch” Contoured Maps. 62 sheets. 1940-1963 Bartholomew’s Revised Half-Inch Map, Great Britain. Called Bartholomew’s Revised “Half-Inch” Contoured Maps.) All Great Britain-62 sheets. 1961-1974 Bartholomew’s Revised Half-Inch Map, Great Britain, called: Bartholomew’s Half-Inch Contoured Great Britain. 1975 - 1999 Bartholomew 1:100,000 Map of Britain. But they stopped comprehensive coverage in the 1980’s as sales dropped. A few popular maps covering popular tourist areas were revised. By the end of the 1990’s the series' production run finished. BARTHOLOMEW-STANFORD: Edward Stanford of Charing Cross and Whitehall had bespoke versions of Bartholomew maps published to their own high standards. They were dissected and mounted on fine linen. Many features were removed making the maps less cluttered and more attractive. The covers were plainer and cited Stanford and Bartholomew. Other ways of dating Bartholomew maps: Road Numbering was first added to sheets in 1921 following its introduction by the Ministry of Transport the previous year. CTC: Between c1911 and 1928 an arrangement existed between Bartholomew and the Cyclists’ Touring Club for their members to send in any revisions they found to the maps. This was acknowledged by the club logo in the lower border of the map. NOTE: having written the above, at a later date a set of maps was found which questioned this dating: this is an extract of one of them, which was annotated, and showed South Northumberland: “Most histories claim that the Cyclists' Touring Club maps were 1920’s, or at the very earliest the 19 teens, yet here is an example which challenges that: it is annotated as follows: “Ron Gilbert Rivington, St John's House Clerkenwell 1907”. One must conclude that some CTC Bartholomew maps were trialled earlier in the Edwardian era, that they were sold via agents who attached their labels to the front and that the better known series with symbol key and Royal Arms came later. On this example “The Geographical Institute” were written in an Art Nouveau Script; a movement dated 1890-1910. This is the series in which the Cyclists' Touring Club chose the roads and classified them. Their logo appears at centre bottom recto of the sheet in place of the usual Royal Arms. It was assumed always that the CTC logo replaced the “By Appointment to the King George V”, but the evidence of this map indicates that the CTC Bartholomew map predate that Royal Appointment.” Table of prices and increases at the dates, a useful as a guide. Prices are here listed for 1st Paper flat 2nd Paper folded 3rd Cloth folded 4th Dissected & Folded 1897 2/6 3/6 - 1890 1/- 2/- - 1898 1/- 2/- 2/6 1912 1/6 2/- 2/6 1920 1/6 3/- 4/- 1943 2/6 4/- 5/6 1950 2/6 4/- 6/- 1952 2/6 3/- 6/- 9/- 1953 3/- 3/- 5/- 7/6 1957 3/- 3/- 5/- 10/- 1963 3/- 5/- 10/- 1968 4/- 6/- 12/6 1970 4/- (20p) 6/- (30p) 15/- (75p) 1971 6/- (30p) 8/- (40p) 20/- (£1) Some aspects of Bartholomew maps distinguished them from OS- tendency to map rivers in black. And railways also in single black line . Geographical maps often using a colour shading method to show altitude from Blue at sea level through shades of green then shades of sienna brown with the darkest as the highest (white at highest points when needed.) This is termed “orographic”- a word used by Bartholomew's and seldom heard elsewhere- it comes from the Green word for “Hills”. More emphasis on road transport- cycles and cars, with less incidental and historical detail than OS- generally smaller folded format with a cover board of about 8” by 4”- so more of the appearance of a pocket map about many of the series. Back and front boards often not joined but mounted separately on the back of the sheet which folded to concertina the map between the boards- generally an easier map to fold than an OS equivalent. Some have a "third board" set between the end boards which was used to advertise the Pocket Atlas series- this board was sometimes white, sometimes blue. Some maps have up to three verso advertising panels- nearly always blue printed on a yellow background which gives the appearance of green on yellow. On some maps cartography taken from Ordnance Survey is acknowledged- this map refer to the contours of altitude, which are colour graded in these series but just linear on the OS. The two companies have come to blows over issues of copy write so the co-operation was never complete and perhaps happened only in certain periods. The Ordnance Survey was never acknowledged on C.T.C. Co-operative maps of the 1920s (Cyclists' Touring Club). On earlier maps Bartholomew used a grid in minutes of longitude and latitude- In circa 1900 they used 10 minutes of longitude and 15 minutes of latitude which made a rough square grid- later 10 minutes of both longitude and latitude which on these projections made a north-south elongated rectangular grid. The success of Bartholomews maps car drivers and particularly cyclists was demonstrated by their endorsement by the Cyclists' Touring Club, who edited the maps for their members. This prompted the Ordnance Survey to attempt to capture the same market and having no CTC endorsement, the OS pitched their Pocket Road Maps at motor-cyclists. OS also had a version of Bartholomew's graded colour to express height in its Traveller Series. Geographia, which specialised in town maps particularly- was a branch of Bartholomew Map Co.. Post war, Bartholomew produced very fine political maps of foreign regions. Scandinavia is one such fine map. North Africa is another and France and the Low Countries appeared in two sheets individually bound. This was the “Bartholomew's World Layered Series”. Their General World series had 31 titles: AFRICA; AFRICA, CENTRAL AND EAST;AFRICA SOUTH AND MADAGASCAR; AFRICA SOUTH, OROGRAPHICAL WALL MAP; AMERICA NORTH; AMERICA SOUTH; AUSTRALIA; AUSTRALIA SOUTH EAST; BURMA, MALAYA & INDO CHINA; CHINA; ETHIOPIA; EUROPE EASTERN; EUROPE WESTERN; EUROPE & MEDITERRANEAN; FAR EAST AND WESTERN PACIFIC; FRANCE AND LOW COUNTRIES 2 SHEETS; GERMANY AUSTRIA AND SWITZERLAND 2 SHEETS; GERMANY AND CENTRAL EUROPE; GERMANY AND POLAND; INDIA, BURMA & CEYLON; ITALY AND BALKANS; JAPAN; MIDDLE & NEAR EAST; NEW ZEALAND; PALESTINE; RUSSIA IN EUROPE; SCANDINAVIA; SPAIN & PORTUGAL; SWITZERLAND; WORLD ROUTE CHART; WORLD LIBRARY CHART. The family: George Bartholomew: 1784-1871, but active from 1797, worked as an engraver for Lizars in Edinburgh. His son, the first John Bartholomew,1805 - 1861, began to work independently in 1826, founding the firm . The most notable and sought after early work by him was Black’s General Atlas of 1846. This was still in production in 1856-60 period and a famous edition has maps which include the attempts to find Franklin and the first evidence of the fate of the crew of the Erebus and Terror John (2) Bartholomew (1831–1893) and his son John (3) George Bartholomew (1860–1920) brought the firm to prominence in British cartography. Then John (4) G. Bartholomew made the firm a publisher of its own works, before they had produced maps for other firms. John (5) Ian Bartholomew (1890–1962) oversaw the Times World Atlas 1922 and later the Mid-Century Edition of the Times World Atlas of 1955-60. The cartographic tradition continued into a fifth family generation. John B Bartholomew 1923–2008, oversaw the publication of some of the most detailed and popular maps of the 20th century. In 1989, the firm merged with the Glasgow publisher Collins, as part of the Harper-Collins Publishers. The name Bartholomew survives as the trade name of Harper-Collins' cartographic on-line business – called “Collins Bartholomew”. Their British mapping arm was formerly called Geographia Ltd. It was based in Cheltenham until that office was closed in 2009, and is best known for its town street maps. Condition: gGOOD VERY LIGHT PENCIL ANNOTATION BY HIKER OR CYCLIST OF 1950'S- DIFFICULT TO SEE: ON LINEN, IN COVERS WHICH FLOAT AND DO NOT HINGE- VERY GOOD FOR RIVERS, OVERALL GEOLOGY AND THAMES -OXFORD BASIN- OXFORD AND ITS RAILWAYS BEFORE BEECHING- ESSENTIAL;LY OXFORD IN WAR PERIOD BUT WITH RAD STATIONS ALL SHOWN AND NO LONGER REDACTED, Type: 1/2" TOPOGRAPHICAL, ON LINEN BARTHOLOMEW, County: Berkshire, Year: 1955-, City: OXFORD, CIRENCESTER, BANBURY, AYLESBURY, Cartographer/Publisher: JOHN BARTHOLOMEW, EDINBURGH, Format: ON ;LINEN FOLDED, FLOATING COVERS, Original/Reproduction: Vintage Original, Printing Technique: Lithography, RAF AIRFIELDS SHOWN AGAIN AFTER CENSOR: OLD RAILWAYS OF OXFORDSHIRE, GEOLOGICAL OVERVIEW OF OXFORDSHIRE: CHILTERNS TO COTSWOLDS 1955 MAP

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